Caribbean Action 2030

Caribbean Action 2030

Caribbean Sustainable

Caribbean Action 2030

Abstracts

Thalia Balkaran
Assessing the Vulnerability of Tourism-related Livelihoods to Tropical Cyclones in Small Island Developing States: a comparison of Tobago and Jamaica
Small Island Developing States are vulnerable to hurricanes and tropical storms that threaten critical economic sectors that are key income earners. This paper examines the vulnerability of tourism livelihoods in Tobago and Jamaica and is in keeping with SDG 8 - “Decent Work and Economic Growth.” A mixed methods approach was incorporated and a Tourism Livelihoods Vulnerability Index calculated for each site to allow for quantification of vulnerability. Preliminary results indicate that the main factors affecting the vulnerability of tourism livelihoods to hurricanes and tropical storms include the global economic crisis and difficulties in securing financial safety nets such as insurance and environmental degradation. Results indicate that generally livelihoods within the selected sites in Tobago were less vulnerable than those in Jamaica. Adaptation measures are also suggested to reduce the risk to stakeholders involved in tourism and put in place appropriate strategies to ensure the sustainability of the industry.

Karina Browne, Darshelle Daniel, Carene Francis, Kalecia Hall, Risa Khan, Mekeina McLennon, Diedre O’Connor, Annadjae Roberts, Keadia Sparkes, Nicole Thwaites, Hadeikaye Williams
Community-Based Approaches to Assessing and Measuring SDGs and Related Indicators
There has been increasing interest in the mechanisms which will be utilized to assess, measure and monitor progress towards the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). There has been discussion surrounding the data collection needs and availability of resources, in addition to levels of awareness and localization of the SDGs.  There have been calls for exploring these aspects at the community level. The SALI6201 group (SALISES Social Research Methods Course) will be exploring community-based approaches to assessing and measuring SDGs and related indicators in Jeffrey Town, a rural farming community in Jamaica. This community has been involved in several initiatives focused on sustainable social and economic development, including UN initiatives. Through a multi-method approach, the study will look at available data at the community level, additional data which may be useful and potential mechanisms for the generation of this data. The study will also seek to explore community members’ awareness and perceptions of the SDGs, reflections on priorities within the community, and ways in which individuals may be able to further contribute to sustainable development goals.

Richard L. Bernal
BREXIT and the Caribbean’s Amicus Curiae Brief
This paper discusses the decision of the electorate of the United Kingdom (UK) to leave the European Union (EU). Known in common parlance as “Brexit” it will have an impact on the U.K. and implications for the Caribbean. The first section examines the uncertainty about the process of extrication and the type of political clearance for the deal resulting from negotiation to follow the invoking of Article 50. The second section examines the possible repercussions for the U.K. and the likely impact on and reaction of the rest of world are discussed in the next section. The implications for the Caribbean and what policy actions the Caribbean might take in response are discussed in the fourth section.

Rashad Brathwaite
SDGs, Disability and the Labour Market in Barbados
This study seeks to explore the extent of labour market participation of persons with disabilities (PWDs) in Barbados and the legal and policy frameworks which provide the context for these trends. Data Collection surrounding PWDs or persons living with disabilities (PLWDs) and the labour market is immensely weak in Barbados. The limited data available provides a picture of poor labour market integration of PWDs with disproportionate representation of PWDs who are unemployed or economically inactive. There is a porous legislative and policy framework which lacks consistency resulting in fissures and cracks through which PLWDs are deprived of their Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) Article 27 rights; namely- ’the right of persons with disabilities to work, on an equal basis with others; this includes the right to the opportunity to gain a living by work freely chosen or accepted in a labour market and work environment that is open, inclusive and accessible to persons with disabilities.’ The study demonstrates the weak levels of labour market integration of PWDs with disabilities, highlighting the centrality of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which touch and concern many of the gaps which exist within Barbados. The SDGS and the CRPD represent a strong programme of action; but evidence of weak implementation and a lack of political will must be overcome to realize the rights of PWDs including the right to work and to be a part of the labour market.

Kelvin Dalrymple, Prakash Loungani, Ke Wang
Economic diversification: The Impact of Political Economy Decisions in Low-income Developing Countries
The benefits of economic diversification have been widely studied and are well known – greater resilience to exogenous shocks and stronger long-run growth performance, which are both crucial policy goals for developing countries including small states. Diversification of low-income developing countries (LIDCs), including small and fragile states, is slow despite guidance, suggesting that diversification is about more than economics. Are political economic variables playing an understated role in achieving economic diversification? This paper discusses economic diversification in LIDCs, with a special focus on commodity exporters and small states. Economic diversification here is defined to include different angles of diversification across export products, export partners, product quality, and real sectors. This paper provides narratives on successful country experiences and challenges, examines policy options to achieve better diversification, assesses the impact of political economic decisions in diversification, and provides policy recommendations for specific country groups based on current development stages and country characteristics.

Ashaki Dore
Responsible Citizenship in Public Safety
Participation takes place within two dimensions: in institutionalized spaces where citizens are invited to participate in formal spaces and in non-institutionalized spaces, where citizens undertake more autonomous action by organically creating and shaping their own spaces and providing individuals with collective presence and collective voice. Security as it is experienced today, is multifaceted and multidimensional and has made a move towards the development of a security approach that is inclusive of domestic and non-military dimensions of security. Consequently, studies in the citizen security framework have focused on increasing social cohesion and participation in the community. This paper engages Community Action Officers and draws on the concept of citizenship to discuss active citizenship in “at-risk” communities in Trinidad and Tobago. The findings reveal that the state has been eroding civic responsibility in the community, which has major implications for public safety.

Keywords: Citizenship, Citizen Participation, Citizen Security, Public Safety, Trinidad and Tobago.

Neville C. Duncan
Forging Anticipatory Resilience to Potential Impact of Predicable Global Political Economic Developments on Caribbean Countries
This paper raises the much wider set of global contextual issues which may either de-rail the planned targeted achievement for SDGs or facilitate their achievement. The list is brief but sufficient for this presentation. Two positive outcomes may be the transition to a new form of capitalism based on bio-technological and nano-technological developments, on the one hand, and the increasing use of “synthetic” oil for energy needs, on the other. Both hold the prospect for a new wave of global prosperity which may enable success in the achievement of the SDGs and targets. All this is conditional, of course, on what may cause creative destruction of the old political economy. To ignore the positives and negatives may prove fatal to the achievement of the SDGs.

Aldrie Henry-Lee
Fulfilling the SDGs for Children in Small Island Developing States (SIDS)
This paper examines the fulfilment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for children. While the fulfilment of all SDGs will have a positive effect on all children, this paper focuses on four SDGs: SDG 1 (No Poverty); SDG 4 (Quality Education); SDG 10 (Reduced inequalities) and SDG 13 (Climate Action). Using secondary data on the status of children in four SIDS (namely Haiti, Jamaica, St. Lucia and Barbados), the challenges and prospects for fulfilling these above-mentioned SDGs are examined. It is noted that while there has been general improvement in the status of children, more policy attention must be paid to the “invisible” children e.g. children with disabilities; street children; and children in violent circumstances. There is generally a paucity of data to comprehensively monitor the SDGs and a concerted effort needs to be made to disaggregate data, where relevant, by income, sex, age, and area of residence. This would inform the policy process and facilitate effective targeting to ensure that no categories of children are “left behind” in the fulfilment of these SDGs.

Lorna Inniss and Christopher Corbin
The role of a legally binding Convention for the Wider Caribbean and delivery of SDG 14
The Cartagena Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region entered into force 30 years ago. Efforts were aimed at promoting regional cooperation for improving regional capability in coastal and marine governance, strengthening national and regional institutions, policies and legislation. However, understanding the successes of the treaty requires a rigorous assessment of the current state of marine resources in the Wider Caribbean region. A relevant and coherent set of indicators relating to marine pollution, oil spills response and prevention, and biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, with the latter incorporating the state of fisheries, both small scale and commercial is indicated. This paper explores the efficacy of the Convention in the achievement of selected Sustainable Development Goals and other global targets for fisheries and biodiversity, and proposes a strategy, with indicators, for sustainable development of the coastal and marine resources of the Wider Caribbean.

Donna Kaidou-Jeffrey, Patrick Kendall, and Amos C Peters
Managing Water Resources for Sustainable Development in the Caribbean: Dynamic Policy Option
Caribbean countries experience high levels of water scarcity and water stress. This poses an enormous development challenge for the region given growing demand, inadequate infrastructure and low investment in the water sector. Vast literature examines the impact of managing global water resources on climate change, poverty and sustainable development; however, few studies have considered the impact of water scarcity on growth and sustainable development in the Caribbean. This paper examines the major constraints to water security within the context of water resources and economic growth. The following questions are addressed: How does water impact health, sanitation, job growth, investment, and how does it create opportunities for development? Our key findings show that: (1) the current “block tariff” pricing mechanisms widely applied across the Caribbean region are ineffective and lead to substantial waste of water resources, (2) Prices are set too low and do not adequately cover operating cost of water utility companies and by extension do not meet required levels of investment in the sector, and (3) Planning and Management of water resources in the Caribbean are not aligned with long term sustainability.

Keywords: Caribbean, Conservation, Sustainable Development, Water

Stacy Richards-Kennedy
The Role of Knowledge Brokerage in Advancing the 2030 Development Agenda in the Caribbean
This paper examines the role played by universities in supporting national and regional efforts towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.  It acknowledges the traditional pillars of teaching, research and outreach and the evolving role of universities to include greater emphasis on entrepreneurial, engagement and developmental activities.
Based on research conducted on projects supported by the Research and Development Impact Fund, this paper will highlight some of the political, social and cultural characteristics of Caribbean SIDS that impinge on the research process. 

By examining factors affecting research demand, research supply, research use and research translation, the paper presents a case for greater emphasis on knowledge brokerage and knowledge exchange as critical components for strengthening the alignment between academia, the public and private sectors, civil society and development partners.  It will also outline key lessons, insights and recommendations for stronger linkages between research and development impact in the Caribbean.

Steven Kerr
Creating High Quality Schools in Jamaica: A Situational Analysis
Despite current high levels of enrolment, the input of numerous policies and school level school improvement initiatives, the quality of over 50 per cent of our secondary schools has not been transformed. At all levels of the system, there are deficiencies in the quality of educational provision. As such, a dual system of education exists which separates schools based on leadership and teacher quality, school size and type, location, resource availability and the socio-economic background of the school community (Kerr, 2015).
This research will highlight the current situation in the Jamaica education system as it relates to SDG 4 and Proposed Targets 4.1, 4.2; 4.3 and 4.5. These include: the current scenario relating to academic achievements, the quality of teachers and graduates, accommodations for a growing number of children with exceptionalities, the quality of educational facilities, and resource allocation.

Silvia Kouwenberg, Michèle Kennedy, Yewande Lewis-Fokum
Making SDG 4 Real: Contributing To Relevant and Effective Learning Outcomes
The UN SDG report for the Caribbean notes that inequality “constitutes a particular hindrance to the fulfilment of potential in this region” (p7). Unequal access to quality education means that children whose first language is Jamaican Creole fail to attain proficiency in English, a factor which contributes to poor educational outcomes in the public schools. We, two linguists and one literacy specialist, propose to address this by positioning “language awareness” (the ability to pay attention to the form and structure of language) as the basis for effective classroom language management and English language teaching in the primary schools. To this aim, we developed a course for primary school teachers. This paper explains its tenets and methodologies, considers the outcomes of the pilot offering of the course (supported by the Ministry of Education) to 30 teachers from schools across the Corporate Area, and the way forward for the initiative, which puts into action key aspects of the Ministry’s Language Education.

Alvinelle Matthew
Social Capital and Youth Violence: Are there gender inequalities?
This study explores whether gender inequalities exist in how youth accumulate social capital and in turn, whether these social capital resources are related to male and female involvement in violence when other crime covariates are considered.

The data used came from an in-school survey conducted in the Borough of Arima, Trinidad (N=488) that investigated youth involvement in violent behaviour over a 12 month period. Binomial regression analyses were conducted to identify whether social capital variables and peer deviance predicted differences in violence outcomes by males and females.
Parental involvement, school affective ties, neighbourhood closeness and neighbourhood trust were significant predictors of violent behaviour. Parental involvement only mattered with female violent outcomes. In reverse, neighbourhood cohesion was a significant predictor of male violent behaviour and not female violent outcomes.  Findings also show a significant relationship between associating with deviant peers and violent behaviours despite gender difference. These results highlight the importance of exploring gender-specific policy interventions in utilising social capital to reduce youth violence.
Parental involvement, school affiliation, neighbourhood closeness and trust are all important social capital variables to consider when examining youth violent behaviours. Policies focused on promoting sustainable communities and promoting peace should invest in resources that intentionally build strong reciprocal networks for young people and adults.

Key words: social capital, gender, youth problem behaviour.

Tisa McGhee

Leveraging the Capacity for Public Policy Change in Achieving the 2030 Agenda: Evidenced-Based Policymaking in Caribbean Nations

The Global Goals identified as part of the 2030 Agenda are intended to reaffirm urgent priorities that require cooperation and policy change in Caribbean nations. Effective and sustainable research, practice and partnerships are vital to achieving the agenda. Furthermore, policymakers need precise information to guide their decision-making.  Using the evidenced-based policymaking framework, this study aims to identify which outcome monitoring and targeted evaluation activities are occurring in Caribbean nations using an electronic survey. Analysis of participant responses and findings will further the capacity for public policy change and recommendations for achieving the 2030 agenda. 
This presentation shares the importance of evidenced-based policymaking, and the key components of the framework focusing on outcome monitoring and targeted evaluation activities. Finally, the presentation will connect the study findings to achievement of Global Goals in Caribbean nations as well as recommendations for leveraging practical and pragmatic solutions that lead to policy change.

Key Words: Policy, Evaluation

Rashalee Mitchell
Gender equality and decent work for female sex workers in Jamaica
This paper examines the important role that the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can play on the quality of women and their ability to derive the benefit of decent work. Women in developing countries face more complex challenges as they are more likely to be unemployed than men and be a part of informal and part time work. Work is an essential component of human existence and women should be able to pursue decent work which is free from discrimination, stigma and discrimination and within satisfactory conditions.  The situation becomes even more complex for female sex workers, who are at a greater disadvantage because of the gender inequality that exists in the society. The fact that there are no entrenched laws that protect female sex workers from the numerous vulnerabilities and the exploitation to which they are susceptible, means that they face further marginalisation from the labour force and other areas that are basic to human existence such as access to health care.

The global goals, in particular numbers five and eight, present an opportunity to highlight the unique circumstances of female sex workers. This paper provides some recommendations to improve the situation of all women and in particular sex workers for the attainment of a more inclusive development. Furthermore, the paper outlines the role of civil society in the fulfilment of the SDGs for all and especially for this socially excluded group.

Preeya S. Mohan, Eric Strobl, Patrick Watson
Nascent Entrepreneurs in Caribbean Small Island Developing States: Opportunity versus Necessity
Nascent entrepreneurship is important for economic growth and development since it often involves new firm creation and innovation. Besides the perceived ability to become an entrepreneur, determined by one’s human, social and financial capital, individuals must have a willingness to become self-employed as exhibited by their entrepreneurial motivation. A distinction is made between opportunity or “pull” entrepreneurs who set up a business to take advantage of an identified opportunity and necessity or “push” entrepreneurs who are forced to start a business to escape unemployment or poverty. This paper investigates nascent entrepreneurship in a selection of Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean, along with differences between nascent opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs. We use the 2012 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Adult Population Survey (APS) for Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. Probit regressions are used and comparisons between opportunity and necessity driven entrepreneurs are made. The findings indicate that socio-economic and perceptual factors affect nascent entrepreneurship and do so differently among opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship; SIDS

P. Sean Morris
Caribbean Perspectives and the International Financial Architecture: Towards a Multilateral Treaty on Balance of Payments Adjustments
Although the Caribbean has been at the forefront of various aspects of globalisation and internationalisation, it has been (in)famously known as a prime centre for offshore finance and trading. In many respects, this position has both its advantages and disadvantages, and in this paper, I argue that the Caribbean should embrace the positive advantages as an offshore financial centre and lead initiatives for the development of a multilateral convention in international financial law, in particular relating to balance of payments issues. The international financial architecture is currently made up of various soft law instruments that relate to international financial law; however, there is no single international or multilateral convention on international financial law that is arguably a state-lead initiative or that can be construed as “hard law” in the international financial architecture. It is against this background that I am proposing a Caribbean lead initiative for a convention on international financial law to address balance of payments issues that arise as a result of sovereign debt. The Caribbean has for years been immune to the global economic shocks except for some of the larger Islands such as Jamaica. But at the same time, a number of the smaller Caribbean Islands are seen as offshore financial centres, and these diametrically opposite positions are a blessing and a curse to the Caribbean. In light of this, the Caribbean is therefore well poised through its integration forum, CARICOM, to lead initiatives for a multilateral treaty on balance of payments adjustments. Jamaica for instance, has through the IMF engaged in debt restructuring mechanisms (in 2013), and in this regard, Jamaica could use the experience to push for a multilateral treaty that specifically addresses balance of payments adjustment measures.
Keywords: Sovereign debt; restructuring; international treaty; international financial architecture

John F. Lindo, Jeffrey C. Lombardo, Terrence Forrester, Horace M. Fletcher, Archibald McDonald, Andrew H. Talal, Sanjay Sethi, Brian Tsuji, Venu Govindaraju, Jack DeHovitz, Gene D. Morse
Dual University System Health Research Partnership as a Foundation for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Background/Aim: A dual system collaboration between the University of the West Indies (UWI) and the State University of New York (SUNY) was created and implemented by a joint Health Research Faculty Task Force for an integrated approach to SDGs.

Methods: A needs assessment identified research and education priorities and a dual system linkage structure was created to promote health and wellness.
Main Findings:  An Infectious Diseases Research Center, a Clinical Research Center, an Antimicrobial Resistance and Stewardship Program and a Liver, Kidney and Metabolic Disease Program were identified as highest priorities. Cannabinoid Sciences and a joint effort in Cancer Research, Natural Products and Nanotechnology to identify indigenous compounds and develop nanomedicine were also key areas.

Policy Recommendations: A framework is now established to enable the Joint Health Research Faculty Task Force to begin implementation of health research initiatives as a foundation for multiple SDGs and drive regional timelines and milestones.

Paul Murphy
The Effectiveness of Development Assistance in the Education Sector
Research conducted by UNESC0 (2014), shows that although spending on education in developing countries has increased by around $3 billion dollars annually, there is still a $26 billion dollar funding gap preventing the achievement of basic education for all. The problem of financing education is therefore acute and governments have had to increase engagement with multilateral donors to supplement their shortfall. While it is difficult to assess the overall effectiveness of education aid, the current study seeks to identify the issues that may undermine efforts to successfully implement education projects, particularly in relation to how donor funds are accessed and projects implemented in the Caribbean. The qualitative study utilises a comparative multiple case study approach and examines the implementation of six education projects across two countries by three major development partners in the Region. The donors’ education sector policies as well as project identification methodologies and project outcomes, inter alia, will be analysed. The empirical, theoretical and practical relevance are all expected to contribute to improving development effectiveness in the post 2015 era.

Sheria Myrie
Marijuana and Tobacco Use among Dropout Girls in Inner City Communities in Kingston and St. Andrew
The overall paucity of research on drug use among girls in Jamaica has resulted in limited understanding of the factors that contribute to girls’ drug use, and limited prevention policy. This paper explores the question of what is the impact of exposure to community violence on marijuana and tobacco use among dropout girls in inner city communities in Kingston and St. Andrew. It uses data from semi-structured interviews with 15 inner city dropout girls. The findings show that witnessing or hearing about violence in communities contributes to anxiety, PTSD symptoms, fear, and other internalized psychological problems. In order to cope with these problems, the turn to smoking. The paper makes recommendations for research-informed socioeconomic interventions to reduce drug use among girls and achieve SDG 3 - ensure healthy lives and promote the well-being for all individuals; specifically, target 3.4 to strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol.

Oral Robinson
Incorporating the Outlying Countries: Towards an Inclusive and Equitable Migration Policy within CARICOM
This presentation addresses the question: how do intra-CARICOM migrants from outlying countries (Belize, the Bahamas, Suriname and Haiti) experience mobility and integration within the region. It utilizes data from a cross-national survey and in-depth interviews with people who have occupied CARICOM intra-regional spaces (residence and/or extensive travels). It finds that participants from outlying countries encounter difficulties forging a regional identity, integrating and creating positive lived experiences within other member countries. Respondents identified geographic distance, inadequate representation within CARICOM institution, (mis)education/information of other CARICOM nationals, and feelings of anonymity as the reason for their experiences. Paradoxically, these respondents were more attached and committed to CARICOM than those from the OECS and the founding countries. The paper therefore makes recommendations in line with SDG 10, which targets the reduction of inequalities within and between countries. Specifically, it proposes how target 10.7 can be met through local, national and regional initiatives promoting “orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies”.

Raymond Saner
Financing SDGs through PPPs: Urgent need to restructure PPP standard setting process. Case example of UNECE’s PPP standard for health
This paper discusses the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through Private-Public Partnerships (PPP) and raises concerns about the approach taken by the United National Economic Commission of Europe (UNECE) in setting standards for PPPs. A detailed analysis of the PPP standard setting process as applied to the health sector by the UNECE serves as an example to highlight shortcomings of the current practices.  Remediation by UNECE is urgently needed in order to make the PPP approach, where seen useful and needed, complimentary with the SDG principles. These principles stand for inclusiveness, transparency and participation and must be an integral part of the PPP standard setting procedure and practices.  
Key words: Standard setting, PPPs, health, SDGs, UNECE 

Michelle Scobie
A Sustainable and Resilient Caribbean – Benefit sharing, conservation and sustainable Use of Marine Biological Diversity beyond Areas of National Jurisdiction
The problem of the governance of the global environmental commons is especially challenging in marine spaces or the high seas: areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) and has become a key focus in the SDGs, in particular through Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources. SIDS must find ways to negotiate their interests as the regulatory regime for ABNJ develops through the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Marine ABNJ are rich in resources, account for 40 percent of the planet’s surface, 64 percent of oceans and 95 percent of the volume of oceans. Less than 0.5 percent of this space is regulated and protected making it vulnerable to overuse by those with the resources to do so. Small Island Developing States have an important stake in its governance since large and contiguous areas of their marine space borders these ABNJ and activities of other states in the ABNJ (overfishing, bioprospecting and pollution) impact upon the resources and marine environments of SIDS. Developed states by far have many more resources to exploit the mineral and biological wealth of the ABNJ. Three countries already hold 70% of the patents on marine genetic sequences and between 2000 and 2010, 10 countries held 70% of the landed value from fishing. How can SIDS benefit from a developing ABNJ legal and regulatory regime? This paper uses an environmental governance perspective to critically analyse how the distributive justice norms and existing legal and administrative arrangements in the global governance of the ABNJ (the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the International Seabed Authority and the UN Working Group for the new ABNJ regime, the Convention on Biodiversity, the Convention on Migratory Species, the International Maritime Organisation and a network of regional  seas and fisheries organisations) can benefit SIDS and so fills a gap in the literature since little is written of ABNJ governance from SIDS perspectives. To do so it creates a SIDS-ABNJ framing of key governance debates: lack of legal clarity on resource use and activities in ABNJ, inadequate administrative and monitoring arrangements and the absence of mechanisms to develop and apply distributive justice principles to the ABNJ. The paper applies the framework to the reality of SIDS facing limited capacity to steer ABNJ governance from global to regional scales and discovers the areas of governance and  institutional framework building which SIDS should most immediately insist on if they are to continue to have agency in the process: legal clarity, systems to increase flexibility in rule making for ABNJ in the face of new technologies and biological discoveries, science based decision making and market based approaches to monitoring and regulation that will not require new and additional resources of SIDS but rather better policy integration and optimisation of resources among the agencies, states and private actors with a stake in the ABNJ. The analysis and findings are helpful to SIDS and developing states in the ongoing negotiations at the UN for a new legal instrument for ABNJ under the UNCLOS.

Kai-Ann D. Skeete
Achieving Goal 17 Trade Targets within The 2030 Agenda: The Case of the Barbadian Private Sector
This research seeks to critically examine the Barbadian Private Sector to determine their readiness to increase their share of global exports by 2020. This will be done by analysing the post-2006 period which should have seen Barbadian intra-regional exports increasing as a result of the introduction of the CARICOM Single Market which allows the factors of production to move freely within the region. It may be argued that the Barbadian private sector is unable to significantly meet the demands of regional consumers. Thus, will they be equipped to significantly increase their share of global exports? The findings have shown that there is a need to take further advantage of the existing trade agreements and ensure deeper market penetration. National policymakers are required to focus greater efforts on implementing trade agreements while taking into account the capabilities of the local private sector to maximize on these trade agreements.

Ava D. Thompson, Oscar Barbarin, Sonia Suchday and Ishtar Govia
Psychological Science and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda: National, Regional and International Collaboration
The International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS) established a Presidential Task Force on the United Nations (PTFUN) to formally review its involvement with the UN, to consider commitments and to identify directions of future engagement. This presentation provides an overview of the charge, research methods, findings and recommendations of the PTFUN, with particular reference to the Caribbean and its regional affiliate, the Caribbean Alliance of National Psychological Associations (CANPA). Emphasis is placed on the key recommendation to utilize the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as the organizing framework for enhancing the science’s capacity to address problems threatening wellbeing and survival in the region. Engagement with CANPA and regional national members (e.g., Bahamas, Trinidad & Tobago, Cuba & Grenada) on capacity building and collaboration are highlighted as critical strategies for mobilizing regional psychologists in this global initiative to establish a strong foundation for the future, grounded in culturally-relevant principles of community engagement, empowerment and behavioural change.

Rudo Udika
Preparing You! - A Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Evacuation project for persons with special needs
A risk-informed and resilient development agenda can only be achieved through inclusivity. There are over one billion people with disabilities around the world, 800 million of whom live in developing countries. Caribbean Small Island Developing States are vulnerable to disasters and are at the frontlines of climate change. Recognising that inclusion of persons with special needs is integral to achieving development goals for a sustainable future, the Digicel Trinidad and Tobago Foundation embarked on a project that builds capacity in disaster preparedness and is specifically designed for persons with special needs. This project, “Preparing You!” is funded by AusAid and implemented by the GEF Small Grants Programme at UNDP.  It develops best practices to identify risk factors, create training modules and utilize diverse strategies to guarantee inclusive learning and understanding.  Overall, the Preparing You! project embraces the principles outlined in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
Keywords: disaster risk reduction (DRR), sustainable development, resilient, Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS), special needs, Digicel Trinidad and Tobago Foundation, AusAid, GEF Small Grants, UNDP, Preparing You

Sanne van Osnabrugge
Understanding lobbying for the aim of Resource Mobilization at the COPs to the UNFCCC to enable Capacity Building for Public Policy of local governments in regards to a Sustainable and Resilient Caribbean
Transnational City Networks (TCNs) provide global collaboration between subnational governments, to strengthen capacity for resilience and mitigation of GHG emissions and to lobby at the COPs to the UNFCCC. The research question is: ‘What is the influence of TCNs on the policy outcomes of the climate change negotiations compared to the influence of other interest groups?’ Perceived influence is measured (March 1955). Besides literature review, ‘semi structured’ interviews are conducted amongst Annex-1 Country and Non Annex-1 country delegate leaders, lobbyists for NGOs, BINGOs and a TCN representative at the COPs. A Matrix-method is applied as a tool for analysing the results. Four constructed variables to measure influence where applied to the data. Main conclusion: TCNs influence is hard to measure. Main recommendation: altering the idea of what (the spirit of) the Climate Change Regime is and how it works, could bring its participants more leverage for resources (funding and knowledge).

Donna Walter
"We haffi try it": An action research case study of communicating policy change in the Caribbean
Emerging economies are seeking ways to drive economic growth through the advancement of a modern, efficient, and internationally competitive agricultural sector by developing and implementing policy innovations. However, how these innovations are communicated to the end beneficiaries, such as farmers, has a substantial bearing on the diffusion process. This action research study explored communication strategies utilized by farmers during the implementation of a national agricultural policy innovation. A primary research question guiding this study was: what strategies did farmers use to improve communication with statutory authoritative (SA) bodies during a national restructuring and reorganizing process? Data collection included: interviews, document reviews, and notes from action research group meetings. Policy implications include the following: (1) The development of interpersonal communication channels impacted strongly held attitudes about the national policy innovation and (2) Using process research aids communication when the context involves complex policy innovations.
Keywords: communicating innovations, diffusion of innovations, policy diffusion, farmers, action learning

Sherika Whitelocke-Ballingsingh
Reducing Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Jamaica: A Policy Framework
Accidental poisoning by bleach has been a public health issue in Jamaica for over ten years. Children represent 80% of the annual confirmed cases. Recognizing a need to tackle this problem has resulted in a feasibility study, which proposes a policy framework as an intervention to reduce the incidence of poisoning among children. Secondary data from electronic databases, international organization, countries statistics both locally and international were analysed.
Research findings showed that numerous developed and developing countries reduced the incidence rate of childhood poisoning by as much as 50% through an effective public health surveillance system and implementation of legislation.
This study answers the question, what type of policy framework is needed for the distribution, packaging and labelling of bleach, and public awareness programme to reduce childhood poisoning in Jamaica? This approach should contribute to achieving SDGs 17 and 3 by mobilizing partners to monitor health and promote wellbeing for all ages.

Julie Xavier
A Multi-Dimensional Approach to Poverty eradication in the Eastern Caribbean
The 2030 Agenda affirms the determination of State Parties “to end poverty and hunger, in all their forms and dimensions…” This presentation highlights the efforts by five OECS Member States with support from the UNDP Subregional Office for Barbados and the OECS, and the OECS Commission to address poverty in all its forms.  The Multi-Dimensional Approaches to Poverty Eradication Project (M-DAPP) seeks to strengthen the enabling environment for poverty reduction by promoting a multi-dimensional approach to poverty measurement and interventions in Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.  The presentation will share the results of a Gap Analysis conducted in 2016 which explored the structural and systemic deficiencies in human development services and highlighted experiences of vulnerable persons in 6 dimensions: health, education, income and employment, living standards, safety and security and climate change.  These dimensions will guide the development of a qualitative multi-dimensional poverty tool.